Tim King, Classic Sculptor
BRONZE HISTORY AND LOST-WAX PROCESS
Bronze is a metal alloy that is primarily composed of copper. Depending upon country of origin, foundry, and metal ingot choices, fine art bronze is generally composed of copper, manganese, and silica.
Various forms of bronze casting processes date back more than 3000 years to the beginning of The Bronze Age.
Our sculptures are created using the Lost Wax process, which consist of approximately 15 steps, spanning 3 to 4 months, after hundreds of hours are invested in the original clay sculpture.
15. Basing- Many sculptures are attached to stone or wood bases and turntables.
14. Patina- An oven, chemicals, traditional pigments, torches, airbrushes and hand scrubbing are used to apply color. The patina is protected by lacquer, and the lacquer is protected by hand buffing with paste wax.
13. Metal Chasing- Air tools, burs and sanding are used to hide weld lines and to recreate the original sculpture textures. A high level of quality control and inspection is a key element in all of the production phases.
12. Reassemble- The separately cast metal sections are welded back together.
11. Removing Shell- Using air hammers, plasma cutters, and sand blasting, the ceramic shell is broken and cleaned from the cooled bronze parts.
8. Ceramic Shell- The wax pieces are repeatedly dipped into a fine sand slurry mixture. About 12 layers are built up over multiple days. All sides of the wax are coated in order to make a hollow sculpture. The shell also must be created for every individual bronze casting and can only be used one time.
5. Wax Pour- The mold is cleaned of clay remnants, and layers of wax are painted and poured into the molds, building a layer of about 3/16" thick. One wax copy is required every time a bronze sculpture is cast.
Anatomical measurements are important in accurately portraying figures, emotion, gesture, mood, and story. This is also the step when I am most able to involve the client, children, or outreach for exciting hands-on activities.